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We have no space to dwell further on the notices given of this 
meeting of the Dundee Anthropological Conference. Nor shall we 
here dilate on the future hopes of anthropologists in connection with 
the British Association. On one point, however, we do feel it our 
duty to express our opinion, viz., on the continuance of the meetings 
of such a conference. Our readers will remember that at Birming- 
ham a letter was read from Professor Owen, in which he strongly 
advised that anthropologists should annually hold a Conference or 
Congress, and that such a recommendation was supported by so 
veteran a public scientific caterer as Sir Roderick Murchison. This 
year the Duke of Buccleuch has given it as his opinion that the num- 
ber of such associations as the British Association ought to be in- 
creased. We cannot but think that the anthropologists in this 
country are very grateful for these hints. The time may not be far 
distant when such a Conference may be held. But let it not be sup- 
posed for an instant that anthropologists will ever give up the claim of 
having their natural place in a national scientific association. We 
are glad to know that on this point there is no difference of opinion 
amongst anthropologists, whatever may be the wishes of some of the 
elder members of the British Association. 


On an occasion when, for good or evil, anthropology, as a science, has 
not been encouraged by the British Association, it seems at first 
sight incorrect to head an article with the title so familiar to the 
readers of this Review. But it is quite impossible to exclude the 
science from the arena of section E, although nominally it has been 
" left out in the cold." Wherever the study of the science of man 
receives any support, there necessarily must anthropology be present, 
and the meeting at Dundee had its share of anthropological papers 
contributed by various gentlemen. It is only to be regretted that, 
with very few exceptions, none of these papers were new. All Mr. 
Crawfurd's papers had been long familiar to the scientific public. 
Perhaps it is good policy on the part of the writers of these papers to 
attempt a larger popularity for them than they might otherwise 
receive, but it is a poor compliment to the scientific parliament of 
Britain to set such long-preserved meats before its members as solid 


fare. In the following report of the papers read, the previous use of 
them has been indicated. 

Probably the most novel feature of Section E on the occasion was 
the opening address of Sir Samuel Baker, from which, as our space 
precludes the insertion of the whole, we shall offer a few extracts, 
contenting ourselves with a summary of the rest. After some pre- 
liminary remarks, in which Sir Samuel adverted to his own labours on 
behalf of scientific discovery, he proceeded to dilate upon the subject 
of geography, asserting that it was closely interwoven with theology ; 
and that from the creation, to quote his exact words, " the very 
elements of our creed are connected with particular positions upon 
the earth's surface." Geography promoted Christianity, the speaker 
intimated, and after a survey of the early migrations of races, he 
says : " All this wonderful train of progression is based on geography ;" 
" thus is religion linked with the study of the earth." We must con- 
fess that eloquence such as this tempts us to the inference that Sir 
Samuel had the fear of Dundee before his eyes ; and the following 
passage leads us to think that perhaps the distinguished traveller was 
disposed to be slightly sarcastic upon theological ideas associated with 
districts north of the Tweed : — 

"When we consider," he says, "that the Mosaical history accounts 
for 4004 years from the creation of the first man until the birth 
of Christ, and thus establishes the recorded existence of man for a 
period of 5,871 years to the present day, we must regard with the 
most intense interest the mysterious development of the world during 
that space of time." 

This and similar utterances we cannot but suspect to be calculated 
for the latitude of Dundee, and hardly the serious opinions of the 
speaker, who cannot be supposed ignorant of the discoveries to which 
a better knowledge of chronology has conducted us. When a Bunsen, 
whose orthodoxy no one will question, has not hesitated to assign 
longer periods for the evolution of Egyptian civilisation, we cannot 
suppose a Baker ignorant of the fact, and therefore we feel somewhat 
smitten by the tone of irony here adopted. Sir Samuel then, in a 
masterly way, gave a brief review of the advancement of geogra- 
phical knowledge, paying a graceful tribute to the patronage extended 
to that department of human energy by the venerable Sir Roderick 
Murchison ; adding, however, with great sincerity, that " no striking 
geographical feat has been performed by England during the past 
year." This is unquestionably true ; and it is somewhat remarkable 
that, at a time when Abyssinian geography is so great a want, we find 
scarcely a guide of any trustworthiness to aid our troops on the ex- 
pedition to which they have been impelled by a scries of blunders, 


political and scientific, unexampled for their enormity. Sir Samuel 
differed from Sir Roderick Murchison respecting the fate of Living- 
stone, believing him to have met his death. In an eloquent perora- 
tion, the President, with great good taste, confining himself to geogra- 
phical matters, bore testimony to the efforts made at home and abroad 
for an extension of our surface knowledge, prudently saying nothing 
on the subject of the science of man, which shares with the elemen- 
tary topic of geography the attention of the frequenters of section E. 

A vote of thanks to Sir Samuel Baker was proposed by Sir Roderick 
Murchison, who congratulated the section on " the progress geogra- 
phy had made from the beginning of time," and seconded by Mr. John 
Crawfurd, after which the section began its labours for the meeting 
of 1867. 

A paper, by Lieutenant S. P. Oliver, R.A., on the "Communication 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific," was then read, in the course 
of which the following amusing cross-examination of that gentleman 
was conducted by Mr. Crawfurd in his happiest style : — 

Mr. Crawfurd said that Lieutenant Oliver had, no doubt, had 
excellent opportunities of forming an opinion upon the comparison 
between the red men of America and the black men of Africa, as he 
had seen them in Madagascar. He would like to know which of these 
races Lieutenant Oliver preferred. 

Lieutenant Oliver : I think that is a very difficult question indeed. 

Mr. Crawfurd : That is just the reason why I put it. 

Lieutenant Oliver was sorry he had given that subject very little of 
his attention ; but he might say that the men who were with him, and 
who were their best men when catting through the forests, were men 
from Africa, who had been imported as slaves several hundred years 
ago to some island in the West Indies. They made themselves trouble- 
some there, and were placed by some government, whether English or 
Spanish he did not know, on the coast of Mosquito. Ever since that 
they had followed the occupation of mahogany -cutters, and there were 
no better men in the world. The Indians there were a useless set ; they 
had, perhaps, never been developed. They followed hunting, shoot- 
ing, and fishing, and all they cared for was to provide for their physical 
wants. During the dry season they laid up provisions for use during 
the wet season, and that seemed to be the utmost of their desires. The 
black men with whom he had been acquainted at Madagascar, were also 
widely different from the negroes he met with in Africa. The people 
with whom he had most to do in Madagascar were of the dominant 
race, and were of a superior class. 

Mr. Crawfurd : You saw a great many monkeys and a great many 
savages. Did you encounter anything in the missing link between 
man and the monkeys 1 

Lieutenant Oliver : No, certainly not. 

Mr. Crawfurd : I see you have been eating lizards and iguanas. 
What like is ijniana flesh 1 


Lieutenant Oliver : Iguana flesh is like what I would imagine the 
flesh of a young child would be. 

Mr. Crawfurd : Did you like it 1 

Lieutenant Oliver : Well, we were generally pretty hard xip when 
we ate it. 

Mr. Crawfurd : You would not have eaten a young child, I suppose, 
in the same circumstances 1 

Lieutenant Oliver : Well, I don't know. 

A paper on the " Ethnography of the French Exhibition," by Mrs. 
Lynn Linton (previously read in London), was then read, but it con- 
tained nothing of special interest to anthropologists. 

The following form some of the most important papers contributed 
to section E by various gentlemen, with the discussions thereon : — 

The Antiquity of Man (previously read in London), by Mr. John 
Crawfurd, F.K.S.- — The writer remarked, in opening, that the dis- 
covery of human remains contemporaneous with those of animals long 
extinct in caves, and in lake pile buildings, attested the great anti- 
quity of man, and it was equally attested by the discovery of tools, 
weapons, and implements, unquestionably the work of his hands, in 
the "drift" or loose alluvial gravel. 

Sir John Lubbock agreed most entirely and cordially with Mr. 
Crawfurd in the main conclusions to which he had come, but there were 
one or two minor points on which he had a rather different opinion. 
First, he thought Mr. Crawfurd somewhat underrated the quantity 
of human remains which had been found under circumstances which 
implied their great antiquity. It was quite true, no, doubt, that in 
the drift beds, from which so many specimens of human workman- 
ship had been obtained, no undeniable traces of human bones had yet 
occurred ; but it must be remembered that many traces of human 
skeletons had been found, and that it was only on account of the 
extreme difficulty in every case of feeling quite certain that they 
belong to those beds in which they had occurred that archaeolo- 
gists and others had not felt justified in putting them forward as 
indubitable traces of human remains. After a reference to some 
human remains found on the Continent, which had given rise to much 
discussion, Sir John proceeded to say that when they came to re- 
searches which had been carried on in caves, there were many cases 
on record of caves in which human bones had been found under circum- 
stances which implied that they belonged to the same antiquity as the 
weapons which were found associated with them. They found as 
many remains of bones in such localities as they could expect to find; 
and he would even venture to go further than that, and to say that 
they found more than they might naturally have expected to find in 
caves which had also been used as the dwelling-places of man. Of 
course, it was natural that, under any circumstances, men were not 
buried in caves during the time these were occupied as places of 
habitation ; but any difficulty they might have on that head was 
removed when they found that the Esquimaux, who lived under such 


very similar conditions, and with animals identical with those that 
were living with our earliest predecessors in the west of Europe, paid 
very little attention to the remains of their dead, allowing them to 
lie about neglected in the neighbourhood of their dwellings, and also 
that there were many races of men who were actually in the habit of 
burying their dead in the houses which they occupied when alive, so 
that the tomb was not only figuratively, but was literally " the house 
of the dead." Among many races, such as the Esquimaux, when a 
man died his body was laid in the house which he had occupied, and it 
was shut up, and there were traces of the same thing in other parts of 
the world. It was, therefore, partly to be accounted for in this way 
that so many traces of human bones had been got in caves which had 
evidently been inhabited. Upon that point he could not help think- 
ing that Mr. Crawford would find that he need not explain or apolo- 
gise in any way for any supposed absence or rarity of human remains 
in those caves which had latterly been examined with so much care. 
Then, he thought Mr. Crawford had been rather unjust to the Feejeans. 
When they considered the canoes these people built, the arms and 
implements they formed, and even the language to which Mr. Craw- 
ford had alluded somewhat uncomplimentarily, he thought they would 
admit that the Feejeans were more advanced than he appeared to 
suppose. He would say the same thing of the Esquimaux. No doubt 
they were very dirty, but one could not wash himself with ice ; and 
they must remember that they lived in a country where very often it 
was impossible to get enough water for drinking purposes, and there- 
fore the people could not be expected to use much of it for washing 
themselves. Indeed, when the circumstances were considered, the 
Esquimaux would be found to have made the most of their opportuni- 
ties ; and he even thought that, if Mr. Crawford himself, with his 
well-known ingenuity and his great perseverance, were to go to live 
in the far north among that people, he would find it difficult to carry 
on a more civilised state of existence than that in which the Esquimaux 
were found to be. Sir John further remarked that he thought Mr. 
Crawford had been unjust to the ancient Britons also ; and next, 
alluding to his reference to the Egyptian hieroglyphics, he remarked 
that the labours of Dr. Young in that department ought to have been 
noticed. The principal point, however, on which he differed from the 
author of the paper was that he (Mr. Crawford) was a total disbeliever 
in the unity of the human race, whereas he (Sir John) was a firm 
believer in that unity. In conclusion, he remarked that it has been 
said that there had been certain papers which had not been read on 
the present occasion, because the British Association was afraid or 
unwilling to excite anything like hostility among the people of Dun- 
dee. Now, he thought that this paper to which they had just listened 
was a very good answer to any remark of that kind. He was quite 
sure that very few people would suppose that the British Association 
would pay so bad a compliment to the inhabitants of this part of our 
island as to suppose that they would meet with a different reception 
here from that which they were accustomed to meet with elsewhere in 
discussing such questions, or that the natives of this part of the island 


would wish the Association in any way to conceal those opinions which 
they honestly held, and which they had never hesitated to express 
elsewhere. Far be it from them to shrink in any way from fair dis- 
cussion. They were most anxious, one and all, to hear everything 
that there was to be said on the other side ; and it was a very bad 
compliment, either to the people of Dundee or to the members of the 
British Association, to suppose that these interesting and important 
questions could be discussed in any other spirit than that in which 
they had been ventilated in other parts of Great Britain. He was 
very glad, from that point of view, that his friend Mr. Crawford had 
brought forward this excellent paper ; and he had not the least fear 
that the discussion which would take place upon it would be con- 
ducted in the true spirit of scientific inquiry. 

Mr. Cyril Graham called attention to the fact that the chronology 
followed by Mr. Crawfurd was that of only one person. There were 
several other eminent Egyptologists who followed a different system, 
and there was great reason to believe that the Pyramids, which the 
writer of the paper spoke of as having been built so very long ago, 
had been built within a much more modern period. 

Dr. James Hunt said he thought, in the first place, that the section 
were much indebted to Sir John Lubbock for his concluding remarks 
with regard to an impression that had gone abroad about the British 
Association being afraid to hear papers of this nature. He so cordi- 
ally agreed with Sir John's sentiments on the subject, that he took this 
opportunity to say most distinctly that he did not think the authori- 
ties of the British Association should at all have that charge brought 
against them with regard to papers of a really scientific chai'acter, for 
they were admitted — if there was room for them they wei'e generally 
read. On that point he could very well say that, as long as six years 
ago, he himself had an opportunity of reading a paper on that subject 
at the Divinity Hall at Oxford, on the occasion of the meeting of the 
British Association, and he could say that there had been no excep- 
tion taken to any really scientific paper on account of the opinions that 
had been therein advanced. At the time mentioned, Mr. Crawfurd 
was, he thought, one of those who did not agree in the opinions he 
then expressed on the subject, and he was very glad therefore to have 
that opportunity of saying that he had listened to that gentleman's 
paper with the greatest pleasure and satisfaction, and found very little 
in it indeed with which to disagree. In fact he was far more in accord- 
ance with it than Sir John Lubbock seemed to be. Mr. Crawfurd had 
alluded to the connection of evidence of the antiquity of man, and all 
now agreed that the results of every bi'anch of the science of man came 
to the same result, therefore it was that his paper was valuable, and 
for that reason he thought Mr. Crawfurd had done good service in 
calling attention to it. There were some little difficulties in the paper 
which he should like Mr. Crawfurd to explain. First, there was that 
with regard to the innate incapacity of the Australians. Mr. Craw- 
furd went on to speak of the people who were once without speech 
and had only instinct — and he called these men. Well, it was rather 
a difficulty if they were once without speech, and with only instinct, 


why he called such beings men. Mr. Crawfurd had said that the Aus- 
tralians had the innate incapacity to accept civilisation, and thus 
argued from that absolute original distinction. Now, he did not un- 
derstand, but would be very glad if Mr. Crawfurd would tell them how 
he came to call these people " men without speech and only instinct," 
because he was a little at a loss himself to know how such creatures, 
having no speech, and having only instinct — how such creatures could 
be called men. Next, with regard to the other subject — that of 
Egypt. Bunsen was an advocate for the unity of man, and he said it 
was utterly impossible to explain it in fewer than twenty thousand 
years. That was the opinion of one who was a firm advocate for the 
unity of man, and he boldly proclaimed that it was impossible to get 
reason out of unreason. Now Mr. Crawfurd seemed to be able to do 
that — to get reason out of unreason — and yet declared that the Aus- 
tralians were incapable of improvement. Mr. Crawfurd had perhaps 
gone out of the field — possibly some of the facts he had brought for- 
ward had not a very strict bearing on the antiquity of man — but he 
had much pleasure in saying — though he often differed from Mr. 
Crawfurd — that he cordially agreed with him on this occasion. 

Mr. Crawfurd was much obliged to those who had listened to his 
paper, and greatly obliged to the two gentlemen who had made i - e- 
marks on it for the courtesy they had shown. He begged in the first 
place to l'eply to the question raised by Sir John Lubbock. Sir John 
was of opinion that his information on geology was not very complete ; 
but he had to say that most of it was taken from Sir John Lubbock's 
own works. As to the Feejeans, he looked upon them as a race very 
low indeed in the scale of civilization. Some of the races in the South 
Sea Islands were a more civilized and ingenious race — he meant the 
fair-haired i - ace — but not so the Feejeans. A commission sent out by 
our Government to the Feejee Islands reported expressly that 500 of 
the fair-haired race would, in a war against the Feejeans, be able to 
turn the scale of success against 20,000 of them. These people were 
wholly uncivilised. They killed and banished their aged fathers. In 
fact, he was glad he was not a Feejean himself, or he would no doubt 
have been banished long ago. The fair-haired race were a most inge- 
nious people ; they continued to live in a country in which no other 
human beings could subsist, for when the red American Indian 
endeavoured to live in their country it was found that he could not 
exist among them. As to the unity of the human race, of course he 
did not believe in that. His friend believed in the theory of special 
selection, and he hoped to be able to hear Sir John describe his theory 
of the human species, to explain how he discovered the missing link, 
how a monkey became a man, and how all the different races of men 
had undergone the change they had now done. He would like to see 
a single particle of evidence to show that a black man became white, 
or a white man became black, or how a black woman could be compared 
to the women he saw before him. Mr. Graham stated that he had not 
agreed with certain Egyptologists. Now, he found that Egyptologists 
had not agreed among themselves, and he had taken the best authority 
he could, and he was satisfied that the chronology of Egypt was of 


great antiquity. He did not quite understand what his friend Dr. 
Hunt had said about speech. He had make remarks upon the differ- 
ence between speech and instinct 

Dr. Hunt — -You stated that there were men without speech, and 
with only instinct, and I asked how you could class these creatures 
as men? 

Mr. Crawfurd replied that he had not stated any such thing, and 
Dr. Hunt had only misconceived what he did say. He said that there was 
capacity for speech, but they could not speak, because they had never 
learned. In the same they could not use gunpowder or steam engines, 
because they knew nothing about them. 

Sir Samuel Baker observed that he was very glad to see anthropo- 
logists and ethnologists on such good terms with one another. They 
reminded him of a distinction which an Arab chief once made. An 
anthropologist and an ethnologist were apparently one, — just the 
same, — with a little difference. 

Skin, Hair, and Eyes as Tests of the Races of Men (previously read 
in London), by Mr. John Crawfurd. — He remarked that the skin, 
hair, and eyes, taken either separately or conjointly, formed but a 
very ambiguous test of the races of men, seeing that some of them 
are common to several races in all other respects widely different. 
The complexion or colour of the skin, so far as the integuments were 
concerned, was the most conspicuous distinction of race. It was white, 
of many shades in Europe, including the neighbouring portion of 
Western Asia. There was no evidence that a black or brown native 
race ever existed in Europe, or a native white race in any other part 
of the world. The eye, in a great measure, followed as to colour and 
complexion. With respect to position, the eye was more or less deep 
seated, or had more or less prominent properties, which did not appear 
to be characteristic of any particular races. In the European races, 
and those of Western and Central Asia, it was horizontal, while with 
the Chinese and races of Tartary it lay obliquely in its socket, the 
inner angle being depressed, while the outer was elevated. This 
character, however, belonged more or less to other races equally with 
the Chinese, so that it was not of much value in the discrimination 
of races. Some had fancied that colour in men depended on climate, 
or that a powerful sun made the complexion more or less black, while 
a weaker one left it to improve in fairness in proportion to its feeble- 
ness. This popular error arose out of the narrow experience of our 
ancestors. The author then went on to state that on the continent 
of Australia the native inhabitants are of the same unvarying black 
from Cape York in the 11th degree of latitude to Tasmania in about 
the 43rd degree. They had here, then, an exclusively black complexion, 
while in other parts of the world, with corresponding climates, they 
had fair, brown, yellow, and black complexions. Such incontestable 
facts as these disposed at once of the hypothesis of climate being the 
cause of colour in the human complexion. If, then, the variety of 
colour were not the effect of climate, from what cause was it derived 1 
This was one of the inscrutable mysteries which they could not solve 
any more than the varieties of colour in the lower animals. In con- 


elusion, he remarked that Nature had made colour a distinction of 
species in the lower animals, and it had done the same, although not 
less definitely, in the races of men, and in both cases men were equally 
ignorant of the grounds on which it has done so. 

Mr. Crawfurd then said he would be glad to hear any remarks on 
this paper, and first he would ask for the opinions of the founder of 
the Anthropological Society. 

Dr. James Hunt was most happy to accept the invitation to make 
a few remarks on this interesting paper on one of the greatest difficul- 
ties in the whole range of the science of man. Mr. Crawfurd had 
wound up his paper by saying that as yet science was unable to account 
for the distinction of colour. Well, they had been at that for the last 
half century ; attempts had been made to correlate the different races 
or species of men with the particular physical condition by which they 
were surrounded. Still, up to the present there was very little 
advance or sound generalisations arrived at. Dr. Prichard had said 
that climate would account for it, and endeavoured to illustrate 
this, but before he concluded his labours had to acknowledge that we 
could not tell how the distinctions in mankind had been produced, and 
to content himself in putting forth speculations on how they might 
have arisen. There were not such differences between bare skulls that 
they could not be used as a basis of classification ; and he held that of 
the colour of skin, eyes, and hair, the structure of the latter was the 
most important for this purpose. Mr. Crawfurd held that there were 
exceptions, and he pointed out these ; and though he did not know 
that gentleman's present opinion with regard to the number of special 
creations of man, which he required to explain the present differences 
in mankind, he knew that four years ago Mr. Crawfurd believed forty 
to be necessary. 

Mr. Crawfurd : I have sixty now. 

Dr. Hunt : I have not been in communication with Mr. Crawfurd 
much of late, but the addition of twenty new species in four years is, 
on the whole, a satisfactory rate of progress. I think this subject is one 
of the most important in the whole range of anthropology — I beg your 
pardon, — the science of man. Dr. Hunt then continued to explain 
that, of late years, attempts had been going on to make examinations 
in different counties and countries and prepare tables of the results, 
so that a general broad classification might be arrived at. The sub- 
ject would be a matter of difficulty for many years. He had found as 
great difference amongst the colours of hair in Norway as there was 
in this country, and he hoped that by the investigations now going on 
they would be able to correlate the structure of most of the races of 
Europe. Mr. Crawfurd had admitted, as all must, that science was 
not yet in a state to show the cause of physical, mental, and moral diffe- 
rences in mankind ; and he had said, too, that they could give no reason 
for such differences. In the latter he was, perhaps, going rather too 
far, as he (Dr. Hunt) held that man's progress in the scale of civilisa- 
tion, accompanied with other things, bore a relation to both skin and 
hair. A dark skin, accompanied with crisp hair, was invariably a mark 
of mental inferiority; but he held that none of the characters on which 


Mr. Crawfurd dwelt could be relied on alone as a basis of classification. 
They only become valuable when combined with other characters. 

Mr. Crawfurd said there seemed to be no very material difference 
between the President of the Ethnological Society and the President or 
Director of the Anthropological Society, and he was sure they would 
be all very glad that such was the case. With respect to colour, Dr. 
Hunt assigned inferiority to dark skin. He (Mr. Crawfurd) would 
deny that. Napoleon had dark hair, and a dark skin too ; and he 
did not conceive that a better specimen, so far as the mere humanity 
was concerned, had ever been produced. Of course, he meant the 
first Napoleon. The third Napoleon was not a very genuine Italian 
or Corsican ; there was something Teutonic about him, too, he was 
told. Now, with respect to the inferiority of the black people, 
although the Hindoos were black they were incomparably superior 
and in a far more advanced state of civilisation than the brown-corn - 
plexioned Malays. He would advise the Dr. to give up the black 
inferiority altogether, for he had nothing whatever to stand upon. 
With respect to the races being distinguished by hair or complexion, 
differences were to be found in the same family in the prosperous town 
of Dundee, by the same father and the same mother. Suppose a 
family of seven daughters. There might be cases of the kind, and he 
hoped there were. One had dark hair and a dark complexion ; another 
was fair-haired ; and a third was reddish, or, to be more genteel, 
auburn. There was not the slightest superiority in the dark-haired 
and dark-complexioned daughter as compared with the lighter-haired 
and clear-skinned members of the family. There were cases of every 
sort of hair and every sort of complexion being found in families 
by the same father and the same mother. How could they make out 
that 1 

Dr. Hunt said perhaps Mr. Crawfurd would point out where a race 
was to be found of equal intellectual power to the fairer races when dark 
colour was combined with crisp hair ? 

Mr. Crawfurd replied that he knew of the dark colour being com- 
bined with wool, and he had known some very pretty people have ciu-ly 
hair. Dr. Hunt said he would not condemn eveiy one. That was 
very well put on his part, for in Dundee they could find beauty and 
talent in every department of colour. 

Dr. Hunt, in reference to Mr. Crawfurd's remark in respect to wool, 
explained that he did not make use of the word wool, because wool 
was not hair. 

Mr. Crawfurd remarked that hair was not wool, and wool was not 
hah-, but they were pretty nearly the same thing. There could be 
no distinction drawn between wool and hair, except what was obvious 
to the eye. They could make the same use of the one as of the other, 
though he would be sorry to see wool upon a pretty young lady. 

Dr. Hunt replied that a dark colour of hair and eyes, combined with 
curly hair, was always a mark of mental inferiority, and he challenged 
Mr. Crawfurd or any one else to bring forward an exception to this 

The discussion then terminated. 

vol. vi. — NO. XX. H 


The Supposed Aborigines of India, as distinguished from its Civilized 
Inhabitants, by Mr. Crawfurd. (Previously read in London.) — In many 
parts of India there existed rude and even savage tribes, differing 
widely in manners, customs, religion, and not unfrequently even in 
language, from the great body of the civilised inhabitants. People 
in that state of society were found only in hilly or mountainous districts, 
more or less inaccessible to conquest, and by their comparative sterility 
holding out little temptation to conquest and occupation. They were 
never seen in the fertile and well-watered alluvial vallej'S of the great 
rivers, which, on the contrary, were inhabited by civilised nations, 
however differing among themselves in manners and language. Lin- 
guists and craniologists had invented a theory to account for this state 
of things, which supposed the rude mountaineers to be the sole 
aborigines of India, while it imagined the civilised inhabitants to be 
intrusive strangers, who in a remote antiquity invaded India, conquered 
it, and settled in it under the imposed names of Aryans for Northern, 
and Turanians for Southern India. This view appeared to him utterly 
groundless, and he went into a lengthy description of the history of 
the people, their manners and mode of life, and quoted several accounts 
of the several tribes, in order to refute the view which he had men- 
tioned. After an elaborate paper he concluded : — The mind may safely 
carry us back to a time in which the social state of India was similar 
to that of America, when the civilised tribes were few in number, and 
the wild or savage formed the majority. The Hindu is, beyond all ques- 
tion, a far more highly endowed race of man than the Red man of Ame- 
rica; and civilisation would probably spring up earlier, at more points, 
and attain a higher maturity in India than it did in America. We 
may even point at the localities in which civilisation is most likely to 
have had its earliest seats. Separate and independent civilisations 
would probably spring up in the plains watered by the " Five Rivers," 
in the upper valleys of the Jumna and Ganges, in the central and in 
the lower valley of the Ganges, and in the valleys of the rivers of 
Southern India, such as that of the Nerbudda, the Godavery, the 
Kistna, the Cavery, and the Taptee. These nascent civilisations 
would be independent of each other, and for a longtime be as unknown 
to each other as were the Mexican and Peruvian. All this most pro- 
bably happened long before there was an Aryan invasion, or a religion 
of Bramah. The state of India at such a time would be a parallel to 
that of America on its discovery ; the wild and savage tribes would 
be numerous, and the civilised few in number. Proportionate to its 
extent, it would have as many small tribes, speaking as many distinct 
languages as America itself. India has still a score of nations, with 
written languages, but the number of its wild tribes has not yet been 

General Cotton remarked that each of the races referred to was 
deserving a separate study. Some of them were so like each other 
that the inexperienced would naturally suppose them to be one 
of the same tribe, but so great was the distinction that the one was in 
actual terror of the other. 


TlieOrigines of the Norsemen. — Mr. H. H. Howorth, F.A.S.L.,F.E.S., 
read a paper on " The Origines of the Norsemen." He said that in a 
paper which he read before, he endeavoured to show how differently the 
ancient features of Scandinavia must be viewed in order that its 
influence in the distribution of the ancient inhabitants of Europe might 
be appreciated. He then proceeded to examine and analyse in detail 
some of the problems with which it was connected. The reasons 
for the sudden energy of the Norsemen in the eighth and ninth 
centuries were to be found in the commotions that were taking place 
at those dates. The Mahometans were then in the full swing of their 
conquering spirit. The Georgian and Armenian annals were full of 
accounts of their sweeping in among the mountains of the Caucasus, 
and of the new life which their arrival aroused there. The inexpli- 
cable intricacies of the Eddie faith may perhaps receive some light 
from an examination of the effects of a Mahommedan infusion into the 
strange religion of the Parthians. Not that of Zoroaster — the religion 
of its higher society — but what we find reflected on its engraved gems 
and sculptured stones. It was this alone which could explain the very 
extraordinary fact that wherever Scandinavian relics were found in 
Ireland, Orkney, Denmark, or Sweden, — there were also found heaps 
of the coins of the Caliphate — not many from Byzantium, few from 
the Latin kingdoms of the west, but absolutely thousands from the 
other sources. Some might be seen by those curious in such matters 
in Edinburgh, which were discovered along with some silver remains. 
The Character of the Negro. — Mr. C. W. Devis read portions of a 
paper, prepared by Dr. John Davy, " On the Character of the Negro 
chiefly in relation to Industrial Habits" : — ■ 

In this paper the chief object of its author was the vindication of 
the negro, who, he believes, has been unjustly considered a sluggard 
and inveterately idle. The argument used is of two kinds — one is 
founded on the organisation of the African, insufficiently fitted for 
work — indeed the very cause, under a mistaken humanity, of his first 
importation into the West Indies, with the vain hope of preserving the 
feeble and cruelly worked natives ; the other resting on experience — a 
very extensive experience — finding that, with equal motives to be in- 
dustrious, the negro is not inferior to the white man in industry. The 
author adduces instances of conduct on the part of negro labourers 
that would be highly creditable to Europeans in the same condition of 
life. He concludes with the expression of belief that such peculiari- 
ties as belong to the negro — as colour of skin, quality of hair, &c. — 
are of a kind suitable to him in his native climate, and beneficial under 
a tropical sun and in a malarious atmosphere, and not of a nature to 
allow of his being considered either as a distinct or inferior variety of 
the great human family ; and further, that he is as capable as the 
white man, under continued education, in favourable circumstances, 
and freed from the curse of slavery, of becoming civilised, and of 
making progress in the liberal arts and sciences. One fact is dwelt on 
as of a very promising kind — viz., that these tribes, in the far interior 
mountainous regions of Africa, where slavery has least prevailed, and 
where the climate and soil are good, are most advanced — probably as 

h 2 


much so in civilisation and the useful arts — such as the working of 
iron, &c, as were the ancient Britons about the time of the first Roman 

Mr. Crawfurd remarked, that with reference to the Barbadoes, the 
condition of the negro was very peculiar. They contained a dense 
population, and if the negro did not work he must perish, and if the 
whole of the West India Islands, Jamaica included, were like them, 
the negroes would be peaceable and laborious. He was sure they 
would be glad to have this opportunity of returning thanks to Dr. 
Davy for his admirable paper, the whole of which he was sorry had 
not been read. 

Dr. Hunt thought it was somewhat unfortunate that when an im- 
portant paper was brought before the section they had not time to 
hear it read, and he considered Dr. Davy had a just cause of com- 
plaint against the manner in which his paper had been curtailed. So 
far as he had been able to gather from the portions of the paper which 
had been read, he was fully persuaded that it was one of the most 
important that could be presented to any scientific body. It was one 
of those questions which were now being tested in the Southern States 
of America. Of course, there was only one desire among scientific 
men — to know the truth. In the Southern States of America the dis- 
position of the negro for labour was being tried. It had been contended 
by Dr. Nott, a distinguished anthropologist of that country, that from 
his study for twenty years of the negro character, there was a 
natural disinclination to field or agricultural labour. Whether that 
was so or not, he should have been very glad to hear Dr. Davy's paper 
read, as he had no doubt it would have thrown some light upon the 
subject. He had heard the other day from a gentleman who had just 
come from the Southern States of America — a medical man — that the 
frightful amount of destitution now existing in that country was some- 
thing that no one could picture. The amount of disease, the amount 
of destitution was something very great indeed. Up to this time the 
blacks had not taken to labour. At present it appeared that the negro 
as now existing in the Southern States of America, was incapable of 
understanding and practising the present European code of morals — 
which made a distinction between the meum and tuum. He had asked 
this gentleman why they were not prosecuted, and he replied that 
if they attempted to do so they would have to build jails for three 
millions of people. These were very important facts, inasmuch as they 
were opposed to Dr. Davy's experiences. The question was, what was 
really the actual state of the case ? In regard to Dr. Davy's remarks 
that some persons contended that the negro was little above the 
brute, he had to say that amongst his acquaintances there were not 
many holding that view. What he said was, that intellectually and 
morally he was inferior. In reference to the theory respecting field 
labour, there was a small section who believed this, and he had never 
understood why such should be the case. Why should there be this 
natural disinclination to work in the negro character 1 So far as the 
muscular system was developed, so far as regarded strength of body, 
so far as respected the power of resisting the heat of the sun — looking 


at all their physical conditions — the negro appeared to be a species which 
was perhaps best adapted for labour, and why he should not be able or 
willing to work was a mystery. He hoped and trusted with Dr. Davy 
that the time would come when it would be found possible to discover 
what had hitherto been the objection of the negro to continuous labour. 
He did not think, when they called the negro inferior, that it was, as Dr. 
Davy said, a stigma. On the contrary, he held it was nothing of the sort. 
It was not a stigma upon the negro race to say that that race was 
mentally and morally inferior. It was not a stigma to any man to 
say that he was intellectually inferior to some other person. It was 
either a true or erroneous opinion that the negro was inferior. He was 
surprised to hear Dr. Davy speak of the innate goodness of the negro 
character, or even of the innate character of the Dundonians. What- 
ever might be his opinion of the negroes, he would not go so far as to 
say that they possessed innate goodness. Dr. Davy said it was the 
opinion of many persons. He differed with these other persons as he 
differed with Dr. Davy, for he did not think there was that innate 
goodness either in the negro or the Tasmanian — although the latter 
for a different reason, as they had now all died out. 

Mr. William Buewin, Cirencester, said that he went out to Jamaica 
as one of a deputation from the Society of Friends. After arriving in 
the island, they travelled through the whole of it, and visited twenty- 
one out of the twenty-three parishes. They had intercourse with magis- 
trates, planters, and people throughout the whole island. With 
respect to the black man, he wished his audience clearly to understand 
that it was the same with him as it was with most men ; for he could 
speak of the brown man in the east, and he had seen a little of the 
red man in North America, and he could assure them that a black man 
was as willing to work, if he was paid for it, as any coloured man on 
the face of the earth. They would remember that thirty years ago 
the British nation paid twenty millions for emancipation. If that had 
gone to the right development of a colonial system in that island, we 
should have had a far better state of things than we have. Jamaica is 
what is called an unfortunate island. It has been going down for the 
past half century, and he said the great reason of this was that pro- 
perties in Jamaica were not managed by the proprietors. They were 
worked by a system of attorneys and agencies, which was not only a 
very expensive, but also a very unsuccessful system. For everybody 
knew that an estate was best conducted by those who had the greatest 
interest in it. He believed the attorneys did their best, but they 
worked the estates in a very unsatisfactory system ; perhaps paying 
ten to twenty- five per cent, for the capital employed. How was it pos- 
sible for such estates to be successful t He said that if he were to turn 
planter to-morrow he could get as many labourers as he wished to 
employ, for the simple reason that he would pay them for their work. 
But what took place after the emancipation ? The planters generally, 
instead of doing their best to induce the black people to labour 
on their estate, by paying them a fair day's labour, valued their 
labour at one-third of the price when they were slaves. When in a 
state of bondage, their masters lent them out at half-a-crown a day ; 


but now that they were free, they only received eightpence for their 
day's labour. The negroes would not submit to this, and the conse- 
quence was that their houses were pulled down, and they had to fly 
for their lives. The white men then introduced the system of importing 
labourers, or coolies, as they were called, from the other side of the 
world. In this way they raised a debt in Jamaica of something towards 
half-a-million by this immigration scheme, and the total debt of the 
island was £900,000, and he believed that one-half of this was caused 
by this immigration scheme of bringing labourers from the other side 
of the world into Jamaica. 

Mr. C. W. Devis remarked that it appeared to him that Dr. Davy 
had mistaken the negro for some one else. It was the infusion of 
white blood that made the negro capable of doing what he could. Dr. 
Davy had said the negro was subject to the same diseases as them- 
selves ; and had quoted that splendid passage of the poet by way of 
helping him out of his difficulty. But what was the fact ? why, that 
the negro was subject to entirely different diseases from Europeans. 
There were, it is true, some diseases they had in common. He might 
instance the yellow fever as a disease to which Europeans were subject 
and negroes exempt. Any one of those who had the slightest infusion 
of white blood in his veins was subject to it, and it might be said that 
the fever acted upon his constitution almost in proportion to the 
quantity of white blood in his veins. There was no better ascertained 
fact than that the negro character was sluggish. If he were taken into 
another climate, he would work spasmodically, but although he might 
not retrograde, he would certainly not progress. 

Mr. Kinlooh, of Kinloch, wished to say before they proceeded 
further that the discussion had turned in a manner he did not expect. 
They had heard a great deal of the possibility of teaching the negro 
habits of industry, but lie had come there to learn where they had 
shown the capacity of advancing step by step along with the white 
races in civilisation. They had not heard a single instance. Dr. 
Davy had not told them of a single instance. Dr. Davy had told 
them that there were men of intellect among the negroes ; that there 
were men capable of being instructed and advanced in science ; but 
he had not instanced a single case of a pure-blooded negro having 
made any discoveiy or done anything in the way of advancing civili- 
sation and science. He humbly thought it would be much more 
satisfactory if, in speaking of the negro race, they would show the 
capacity that existed in their nature of improving and advancing in 
civilisation in the world along with the white race. He was sorry to 
say lie had not heard one word about that. He did not dispute that 
the negro would work if paid well. The first observation that was made 
by Dr. Davy was that the cries of the infants of both black and white 
were the same. This, in his opinion, was absurd in the extreme. 
There were many animals which had the same cry. Indeed, he did 
not think the observation was at all in point. What they wanted was 
evidence, if it did exist in the negro, that he was capable of making 
discoveries in science, in knowledge, like Sir Humphrey Davy, their 
friend Murchison, and others, doing good to civilisation, and advancing 
the cause of knowledge. 


Dr. Davi' was ready to show this. He read the following extract 
from his paper : — Professor Tiedeman, I need hardly remind you, has 
given many instances of negroes who had made a certain progress in 
the liberal arts and sciences, and distinguished themselves as clergy- 
men, philosophers, mathematicians, philologians, historians, advocates, 
medical men, poets, and musicians, and that many also have earned 
reputation by their talents in military tactics and politics. 

Dr. Hunt said Abbl Gregoire had published a work, in which he 
gave the history of fifteen negro philosophers. When it came to be 
investigated, every one of these fifteen were found to have white blood 
in their veins. 

Dr. O'Callaghan stated the experience of a gentleman who had a 
large knowledge of the negro, and who gave it as his opinion that the 
negro was not incapable of farther intellectual development after he 
attained adult education, but had told him that in the regiments into 
which they enlisted they were taught to read and write, and even to 
correct the accounts of the paymaster. 

Mr. Crawfurd said they had known the negro for four hundred 
years, but they were not aware that he had made any material pro- 
gress during that time, while other European and Asiatic races had 
progressed. This was rather against the negro. With regard to the 
increase of population, the results were not nearly in proportion to 
those of white races. He concluded by stating that there was no 
doubt a great deal of distress and destitution in the States, and he 
thought when the negroes were emancipated an equivalent should 
have been given to their masters. He was sure the Section would 
willingly give their thanks to Dr. Davy for his able paper. 

We have already given Sir John Lubbock's paper and the discussion 
thereon in another place. In all these cases we have closely followed 
the reports in the Dundee Advertiser. We have thought it better to 
do this than to request the authors to make their own emendations. 

Mr. Crawfurd read to the Section a lecture on the " Races of 
Man," which we believe was originally delivered before the Sunday 
Evenings for the People, held last year in St. Martin's Hall. On this 
general hash up of nearly every conceivable subject, Mr. H. Vivian 
of Torquay delivered a very fluent discourse on what may be styled the 
" Interpretation of the First Chapter of Genesis ;" and Mr. A. R. Wal- 
lace again favoured the public with an interesting speech in favour of 
Darwinism. Mr. Wallace, however, confined his arguments chiefly to 
his favourite illustration, pigeons, and has not given us any new fact or 
put any old fact in a new light. The speech of Mr. Crawfurd on this 
paper we deem rather too comic even for our pages.